Veterinary Immunology

Veterinary medicine is a study of immune system of animal. Same as humans, animals are having many diseases caused either when organisms try to invade their body, or when their immune system doesn't function properly. Most of wild, domestic, and domestic animals are continuously exposed to a whole range of dangerous microorganism, viruses and parasites, that threaten their life and build their life in danger. Animal infections additionally affects to human’s life, like food and agriculture. Somewhere animal infections can easily be transmitted across the species barrier to infect human’s life and vice-versa, a process termed animal disease

Bacteriology

Bacteriology is a part of microbiology which encompasses the study of bacteria, viruses, and all other sorts of microorganisms. Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms which can live as independent organisms or, dependently, as parasites. Among the better-known bacteria are streptococcus, staphylococcus, and the agents of tuberculosis and leprosy. The Bacteria are a group of single-cell microorganisms with prokaryotic cellular configuration. The genetic material (DNA) of prokaryotic cells exists unbound in the cytoplasm of the cells. There is no nuclear membrane, which is the definitive characteristic of eukaryotic cells such as those that make up, fungi, Protista, plants and animals. Until recently, bacteria were the only known type of prokaryotic cell, and the discipline of biology related to their study is called bacteriology.

Virology

Virology is that the subject involved with the study of the biology of viruses and infective agent diseases, as well as the distribution, organic chemistry, physiology, biological science, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses. medical specialty is that the study of viruses, complexes of nucleic acids and proteins that have the capability for replication in animal, plant and microorganism cells. to copy themselves, viruses usurp functions of the host cells on that they're parasites. The viral parasite causes changes within the cell, notably its antigenicity; furthermore, guiding the host cell's metabolism to the assembly of latest virus particles could cause cellular death. Virally-induced death, changes in antigenicity and therefore the response of the host to the presence of the virus results in the manifestations of infective agent illness.

Mycology and Phycology

We all detected regarding the terms, yeast, molds and fungi. these are the eukaryotic microorganisms and with them this study is called Mycology. throughout classification, Fungi are given their own separate kingdom. Fungi are multi-faceted that are distributed entire the planet, it also can grow in a very giant kind of habitats and might survive even the foremost essential conditions- that embrace the extraordinary temperatures each cold & super-hot. alga study is termed as Phycology. These are the first producers within the aquatic system, are very essential within the growth of microorganisms within the water eco-systems. In earlier, they were true plants, however when serious studies, it's found to be pseudo-plants, therefore given a separate classification. In most cases, alga is noncellular and solely few species are cellular.

Medical Parasitology

Medical Parasitology is that the branch of sciences handling parasites that infect humans, the diseases caused by them, clinical image and also the response created by humans against them. it's additionally involved with numerous ways of their identification, treatment and their hindrance. A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism referred to as the host. There are differing kinds of parasites and hosts. Parasites are either living thing (protozoa) or cellular (helminthes and arthropods). They will live within the host referred to as endoparasites or on the host surface known as ectoparasites.

Food Microbiology

Food biology is that the study of microorganisms that colonize, modify and method, or contaminate and spoil food. it's one in all the foremost various analysis areas among biology. It encompasses a large style of microorganisms as well as spoilage, probiotic, fermentative, and unhealthful microorganism, molds, yeasts, viruses, prions, and parasites. It deals with foods and beverages of various composition, combining a broad spectrum of environmental factors which will influence microbic survival and growth. Food biology includes microorganisms that have each useful and hurtful effects on food quality and safety and should thus be of concern to public health.

Environmental Microbiology

Environmental biology is that the study of the composition and physiology of microbic communities within the atmosphere. The atmosphere during this case means that the soil, water, air and sediments covering the world and might conjointly include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental biology conjointly includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments like bioreactors.

Agricultural Microbiology

Agricultural microbiology covers topics associated with the role of microorganisms within the mobilization of nutrients for plant growth like the relationship of microbic biological science and biological nitrogen; plant surface microflora and plant nutrition; developments in grass-bacteria associations; discusses the utilization of microorganisms within the management of pathogens, pests, and weeds and includes topics like the microbic management of insect pests; microbic herbicides; and agricultural antibiotics.

Agricultural Microbiology includes

• Microorganisms and Mobilization of Nutrients for Plant Growth
• Management of Pathogens, Pests and Weeds through Microorganisms
• New methods in Bioconversion
• Microbiology of Agricultural Systems

Soil and Water Microbiology

The track is organized into two thematic sessions: Soil biology, Water biology, the primary sessions includes researches on soil as a habitat for microorganisms, and introduces the most kinds of soil microorganisms, however they interact with the soil, and also the techniques utilized in their analysis. within the second section includes fresh, Wastewater, and drinking water microbiology and assays of microbic pathogens-bacteria, viruses, and protozoan parasites that are utilized in food and water quality control also as an exercise in applied bioremediation of contaminants in water.

Industrial Microbiology

Industrial biology or microorganism biotechnology is that the application of scientific and engineering principles to the process of materials by microorganisms (such as bacterium, fungi, algae, protozoa and viruses) or plant and animal cells to form helpful product or processes.

Veterinary Microbiology

Veterinary biology is that the branch of study primarily involved with microbes that are liable for inflicting diseases to animals. it's strictly involved with microorganism (bacterial, fungal, viral) diseases of domesticated animals (livestock, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, and fish) that provide food and different helpful product. microbic diseases caused by the wild animals living in captivity and United Nations agency are the members of the savage and fauna will thought-about if the infections are due to their relation with humans or domestic animals.

Veterinary Microbiology includes

  • Veterinary Mycology
  • Veterinary Bacteriology

 

Microbial genomes and Physiology

Microbial genetic science is that the study of microorganisms during which genetic materials that contains microbes. Analysis of the complete microorganism order provides the insight of microorganism analysis and variety of microbes beyond single macromolecule or gene phylogenies.

• Chromosome
• Horizontal DNA transfer
• DNA Sequencing
• Bioinformatics

Current and future trends in Microbiology

Microbiology has progressed and transitioned a powerful live since 384 BC, within the interior of the periods of Aristotle and philosopher, once people assumed that living creatures might take birth from non-living creatures, to the thirteenth Century, once Rogen Bacon, named the name "germ" for masters that cause ailments/ailments to Anthony Van microscopist, who in 1676 viewed the essential microorganisms, the "Animalcules", to the year 1878, once Sedillot composed the term, living being that is within and out consolidated into the "Divulgence Era" of biology, that later transitioned into the "Move Era" wherever the real responsibilities were created by Redi, Needham, and Spallanzi to the "Splendid Era" of Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Flemming and bacteriologist to the currently, "Current Era", wherever the examination in biology has created with the advance within the development that had traversed any obstruction of the controls of science, science, number-crunching, and material science. biology, now could be not solely one keep off field, rather it's a additional noteworthy live of amongst relying and between connected field, while not that without which distinctive fields can deteriorate. moreover, biology has currently, offered rise to totally different sub-fields, that therefore a field in itself.

1. Parasitology
2. Virology
3. Bacteriology
4. Water microbiology
5. Geo microbiology
6. Mycology
7. Microbial biology

Molecular Microbiology

Molecular biology could be a quickly increasing space of contemporary science: the appliance of molecular biology has opened the microbic world in several outstanding ways. The attraction of microbes is that they're self-contained which they provide complete solutions to understanding the phenomenon of life.

Molecular biology includes:
Bacterial organic chemistry
Bacterial Genomes
Gene Expression

 

 

Microbial Immunology and Infection Control

Infection inflicting microbes is termed because the term immunity. In such the way it works, that though may appear negating within the initial instance. It primarily detects varied infectious agents thereby preventing the body from falling prey to those infectious agents for the orderly functioning of the system; within the most essential task of the system is to classified smart from the dangerous, and complications arise, the system malfunctions and starts eating away our healthy tissues, or destroying the healthy cells. moreover, on the course of evolution and mutations, these microbes have re-emerged stronger than ever and rapidly, they too have their ways in avoiding the detection by the system, and are currently quite adept in neutralising any attempts of detection by the T-cells. Our system has also amped up their defence mechanisms on the lines of this evolution of pathogens, so as to counter-act the antigens of pathogens. The defence mechanisms against different infectious diseases are potential for the antimicrobial peptides called defensins, that aid in enhancing the effectualness of body process. Vertebrates have extremely evolved system that's able to establish specific pathogens additional effectively.

Molecular and Structural Immunology

Molecular Immunology

Molecular Immunology deals with immune responses at cellular and molecular level. Molecular medicine has been evolved for higher understanding of the sub-cellular immune responses for bar and treatment of immune connected disorders and immune deficient diseases. Journal of molecular medicine focuses on the invitro and in vivo medicine responses of the host. Molecular medicine focuses on the areas like immunologic disorders, invitro and in vivo immunologic host responses, humoral responses, immunotherapies for treatment of cancer, treatment of autoimmune diseases like Hashimoto’s disease, myasthenia, autoimmune disorder and systemic lupus. Treatment of Immune deficiencies like hypersensitivities, chronic tumor disease, diagnostic immunology research aspects, allografts, etc

Structural Immunology

Host immune system is a vital and complex system, maintaining the balance of host response to "foreign" antigens and content to the normal-self. to satisfy this action the system manipulates a cell-cell interaction through acceptable interactions between cell-surface receptors and cell-surface ligands, or cell-secreted soluble effector molecules to their ligands/receptors/counter-receptors on the cell surface, triggering additional downstream signal for response effects. T cells and NK cells are vital components of the system for defensive the infections and malignancies and maintaining the correct response against over-reaction to the host. Receptors on the surface of T cells and NK cells include variety of important protein molecules.

Clinical Immunology

Clinical immunology is that the study of the system. The system is however all animals, as well as humans, defend themselves against diseases. The study of diseases caused by disorders of the system is clinical immunology.The disorders of the immune system constitute two broad categories: immunological disorder, during this system fails to produce an adequate response. autoimmunity, during this system attacks its own host's body.

• Allergy Immunology
• HIV Immunology
• Parasite Immunology
• Thymus and lymphocyte Immunobiology
• T-cell Immunology
• Systemic Lupus Erythematous

Cellular Immunology

Cellular Immunology

Cancer and Tumor Immunobiology

Cancer immunology is a branch of biology that deals with interaction between system and tumor cells. This study is principally applicable in outcome of recent therapies for cancer treatment

  • Tumor Antigen
  • Carcinogen‐Induced Tumor Antigens  
  • Effector Cells in Tumor Immunity
  • Effector mechanisms in tumor immunity
  •  Intertumoral T cells
  • Tumor Immunotherapy

 

 

Neuro Immunology

Neuro Immunology

Reproductive Immunology

Reproductive Immunology

Nutritional Immunology

The nutritional immunology investigates the role of dietary components and their interactions with alternative environmental factors and genes in age-associated changes of the immune and inflammatory responses. various researches are going on to look on to determine the molecular mechanisms by which nutrients modulate immune cell functions. Methods are being developed to use the response as a biologically significant index in determinant specific dietary requirements and reverse and/or delay the onset of these immunologic and age-related changes by appropriate dietary modifications.

Ocular Immunology

Ocular Immunology

Food and Agricultural Immunology

Food and Agricultural Immunology

Diagnostic Immunology

Diagnostic immunology is defined as diagnosing ways and techniques utilized for the detection of allergic reaction, asthma and immune disorders like AIDS, atrophic arthritis, multiple sclerosis, type one diabetes etc. allergic reaction diagnosing is divided into assay kits, instruments and services. Immunoassays, immunofluorescence, Immunofixation and Immunoadsorption are some of the assays. Instruments involve cytometer, bioassay analyzers, luminometers, elisa analyzers, MHC multimer and other instruments. microscopic anatomy and immunology tests, molecular ways and immune system assessment also are many other diagnostic techniques.

 

  • Immunoassays & Immunofluorescence
  • Immunofixation & Immunoadsorption
  • Flow cytometry& Mass cytometry
  • Histology & Molecular Methods
  • Adoptive cell transfer

Mucosal immunology

Mucosal immunology involves the study of immune system response that happens at the mucosal membrane covering the intestine, urogenital tract and the respiratory system. The mucosal system provides primary protection against external pathogens. it's tolerant to the inner non-harmful microbes. Mucosal immunity develops with age with the colonization of intestinal good flora.

Infectious Diseases and Immune System

Infectious Diseases and Immune System

Immunology and Diabetes

Immunology and Diabetes

Rheumatology

Rheumatology

Immunopathology

Immunopathology

Immunodeficiencies

Immunodeficiencies

Immunoinformatics and Systems Immunology

Immunoinformatics and Systems Immunology

Immuno Cytochemistry

Immuno Cytochemistry

Immuno Histochemistry and Immunobiology

Immuno Histochemistry and Immunobiology

Immunologic Techniques

Immunologic Techniques

Immunogenicity and Immunotoxicology

Immunogenicity and Immunotoxicology

Innate Immunity

Innate Immunity

Autoimmunity and Therapeutics

Autoimmunity and Therapeutics

Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy

Vaccines and Vaccination

Vaccines and Vaccination

Vaccines and therapeutics

Vaccines and therapeutics

Antibiotics and Current Research

Antibiotics and Current Research

Apitherapy and Immune System

Apitherapy and Immune System

Antibodies: Engineering and Therapeutics

Antibodies: Engineering and Therapeutics

Cytokines and Current Research

Cytokines and Current Research

Haematopoiesis and Immune System Development

Haematopoiesis and Immune System Development

Regulation of Immune Response

Regulation of Immune Response

Lung Immunology

Lung Immunology

Oncopathology

Oncopathology

Gynaecology and Obstetrics Pathology

Gynaecology and Obstetrics Pathology

Neuropathology

Neuropathology

Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology

Gastrointestinal and Liver Pathology

Ophthalmic Pathology

Ophthalmic Pathology

Hematopathology

Hematopathology

Surgical Pathology

Surgical Pathology

Cytopathology

Cytopathology

Dermatopathology

Dermatopathology

Veterinary Pathology

Veterinary Pathology

Histopathology

Histopathology

Plant pathology

Plant pathology

Clinical Pathology

Clinical Pathology

Diagnostic Pathology

Diagnostic Pathology

Anatomical and Forensic Pathology

Anatomical and Forensic Pathology

Chemical Pathology

Chemical Pathology

Experimental Pathology

Experimental Pathology

Digital Pathology

Digital Pathology

Pathological Case Reports

Pathological Case Reports